1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.
Information on sample sizes for this study was received through communication with the authors (Olds, et al., 2002).
1 The study indicates home environments were rated at 12 and 21 months, however, only one result is presented in the article and the timing is not labeled.
2 Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (α = 0.05).
This table shows a study’s results by outcome measure. Rows for primary outcomes
are shaded. Favorable outcomes are listed in green and unfavorable or ambiguous outcomes are
listed in red. Please see the
summary of outcomes used in research
for more information on the outcome measures used.
For a uniform approach, HomVEE calculates mean differences as the program group
mean minus the comparison group mean. In some studies, authors did this calculation
in the opposite direction.
The odds ratio is the odds of an event occurring in one group divided by the odds of an event occurring in another group. If the odds of an event occurring in group A equals 3 and the odds of an event occurring in group B equals 2, the odds ratio equals 1.5. In other words, there is a 1.5 times greater likelihood the event will occur in group A than in group B.
HomVEE reports author-calculated effect sizes when available, as labeled in the table. If the author did not report effect sizes, but sufficient information was available, HomVEE calculated effect sizes.
The HomVEE review calculates effect sizes using the same computations as the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC). The WWC, established by the Institute for Education Sciences in the U.S. Department of Education, reviews education research. For more information, please read WWC effect size calculations.
Statistical significance is an indication of the probability that the observed finding was obtained by chance (when there is not a real relationship in the population). If the p-value is equal to or less than a predetermined cutoff (in the HomVEE review, 0.05), then the finding is considered statistically significant or probably not obtained by chance.
Primary outcome measure: For the HomVEE review, an outcome measured through direct observation, direct assessment, or administrative data; or self-reported data collected using a standardized (normed) instrument.
Secondary outcome measure: For the HomVEE review, most self-reported data, excluding self-reports based on a standardized (normed) instrument.
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